BACKGROUND: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) survival outcomes differ by race. Current recommendations for surveillance of PNETs less than 2 cm in size are based on low malignant potential and low rates of lymph node metastases (LNM). We investigated whether these guidelines are universally applicable regardless of race. STUDY DESIGN: A multi-institutional analysis of patients with resected, nonfunctional, sporadic PNETs was performed initially using the US Neuroendocrine Study Group dataset with the National Cancer Database as a validation dataset. Patients with distant metastatic disease were excluded from analysis. RESULTS: A total of 453 (388 White and 65 Black) and 5,532 patients (4,772 White and 760 Black) were analyzed in the initial and validation datasets, respectively. White patients had a low incidence of LNM in tumors of less than 2 cm in both datasets (5% and 12%, respectively), which increased with tumor size. However, the incidence of LNM in Black patients was similar in the initial and validation datasets for tumors sized less than 2 cm (23% and 21%) and 2 to 3 cm (21% and 29%). Black patients had a significantly higher incidence of LNM in tumors less than 2 cm in size in the initial and validation datasets (p < 0.01) compared with White patients. CONCLUSIONS: The current recommendation for surveillance of PNETs of less than 2 cm in size is likely based on a low rate of LNM seen in a predominantly White population. The incidence of LNM in Black patients with tumors less than 2 cm in size is clinically relevant and concerning. Current guidelines may not be universally applicable, and a more aggressive approach to resection in Black patients with small PNETs may be warranted.