Application of x stop device in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis

Xiaobin Yi, Bradley Mcpherson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Low back pain is exceptionally ubiquitous, complex, and costly. Nevertheless, lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) with neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) is a frequent cause of low back and lower extremity pain. Although the phenomena and pathophisiology of lumbar spinal stenosis has been described for decades, therapeutic treatment options remain considerably limited. Current care consists of conservative measures including physical therapy, rest, medications, and epidural steroid injection therapy or invasive surgical treatment including laminectomy with or without fusion. Despite standard of care intervention, many patients are often left inadequately treated and suffer from debilitating low back and lower extremity pain as a result of lumbar spinal stenosis. Interspinous process distraction (IPD) devices were originally described in the 1950s, but technological advances, which have contributed to improved safety and efficacy, have rekindled an interest in IPD implantation. By mimicking lumbar flexion at affected levels of stenosis, it is thought these devices decompress neural structures within the neural foramina and therefore provide pain relief. X-STOP is one such device that is currently approved in the United States for the treatment of mild to moderate NIC resulting from LSS. This manuscript presents a focused review of NIC and LSS and comprehensively presents literature related to the use of the X-STOP IPD device.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E327-E336
JournalPain Physician
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2010


  • Interspinous process distraction (IPD)
  • Interspinous spacer (ISS)
  • Low back pain
  • Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)
  • Neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC)
  • Sciatica
  • X STOP


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