Nanoparticles offer new options for medical diagnosis and therapeutics with their capacity to specifically target cells and tissues with imaging agents and/or drug payloads. The unique physical aspects of nanoparticles present new challenges for this promising technology. Studies indicate that nanoparticles often elicit moderate to severe complement activation. Using human in vitro assays that corroborated the mouse in vivo results we previously presented mechanistic studies that define the pathway and key components involved in modulating complement interactions with several gadolinium-functionalized perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFOB). Here we employ a modified in vitro hemolysis-based assay developed in conjunction with the mouse in vivo model to broaden our analysis to include PFOBs of varying size, charge and surface chemistry and examine the variations in nanoparticle-mediated complement activity between individuals. This approach may provide the tools for an in-depth structure-activity relationship study that will guide the eventual development of biocompatible nanoparticles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)651-660
Number of pages10
JournalNanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2014


  • Complement
  • Hemolysis Assay
  • Mouse Model
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanoparticles
  • Perfluorocarbon


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