Apical Left Ventriculotomy is Safe in Infants and Young Children Requiring Cardiac Surgery

Steven P. Goldberg, Christopher J. Knott-Craig, Vijaya M. Joshi, Mayte I. Figueroa, Jean A. Ballweg, Thomas K. Chin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objectives: Incisions in the left ventricle have previously been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, particularly in infants. In order to determine whether this assumption is still true in the current era, we reviewed our recent experience with apical left ventriculotomy in neonates and infants. Methods: The records of five consecutive patients requiring a left ventriculotomy between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. Weight and age ranged from 2.6 to 16 kilograms and 5 days to 2 years. The diagnoses were three multiple ventricular septal defects, one rhabdomyoma, and one apical aneurysm. The primary end point was left ventricular ejection fraction, with other end points being intensive care unit length of stay, time to extubation, inotrope requirement, arrhythmias, and mitral valve function. Results: There were no early or late deaths. Although lower than their preoperative values, early postoperative ejection fractions were greater than 50% in all patients. Two patients required no inotropes, and 3 required only minimal support. Hospital length of stay was 9 ± 7 days for multiple ventricular septal defect patients, with intensive care unit stays of 2 to 5 days. There were no postoperative arrhythmias requiring pharmacological therapy, and one patient had a significant reduction in mitral insufficiency postoperatively. Conclusions: Based on our experience, we believe that an apical left ventriculotomy does not significantly impair left ventricular function even in small infants, and is not associated with significant morbidity, based on short-term follow-up. Although the long-term effects are still unknown, early results suggest that a left ventriculotomy may safely be used when alternative approaches are inadequate for complex cardiac defects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)459-462
Number of pages4
JournalWorld Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2012


  • cardiac
  • congenital heart disease (CHD)
  • echocardiography
  • tumor
  • ventricular septal defect


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