Antipsychotic Efficacy of KarXT (Xanomeline-Trospium): Post Hoc Analysis of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Categorical Response Rates, Time Course of Response, and Symptom Domains of Response in a Phase 2 Study

Peter J. Weiden, Alan Breier, Sarah Kavanagh, Andrew C. Miller, Stephen K. Brannan, Steven M. Paul

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) categorical response rates, time course of response, and symptom subdomains of response with the combination oral agent KarXT (xanomeline-trospium) in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods: Post hoc analysis was conducted for EMERGENT-1 (NCT03697252), a 5-week, inpatient, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study of acute psychosis in patients who met DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia. The EMERGENT-1 study was conducted between September 2018 and August 2019. Categorical thresholds of response used were PANSS total score reductions of ≥ 20%, ≥ 30%, ≥ 40%, and ≥ 50% between baseline and study end. Number needed to treat (NNT) for each categorical threshold was calculated. The proportion of KarXT- and placebotreated patients achieving each response threshold at weeks 2, 4, and 5 was assessed. Marder 5-factor analysis of PANSS assessed response with KarXT across symptom domains. Results: A total of 83 patients in the KarXT group and 87 patients in the placebo group were included in the modified intent-to-treat analysis. Response rates with KarXT ranged from 59.0% for a ≥ 20% threshold to 15.7% for a ≥ 50% threshold. All response rates with KarXT were significantly higher than in the placebo arm (P < .05), with NNTs ranging from 3 (≥ 20% improvement) to 11 (≥ 50% improvement). KarXT was associated with a significantly higher response rate relative to placebo as early as 2 weeks for ≥ 20% (P = .0001) and ≥ 30% (P = .0022) thresholds and at 4 weeks for the ≥ 40% (P = .0049) and ≥ 50% (P = .0041) thresholds. Each of the Marder 5 factors showed significant differences favoring KarXT over placebo (P < .05) by 2 weeks and continuing through week 5 (endpoint Cohen d effect sizes, 0.48-0.66). Conclusions: KarXT provided clinically meaningful responder rates on PANSS total score compared with placebo at each response threshold, providing further support of the successful primary and secondary endpoints. Response was demonstrated as early as 2 weeks relative to placebo. KarXT demonstrated improvements vs placebo in all 5 factors (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, disorganized thought, uncontrolled hostility, and anxiety/depression).

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychiatry
Volume83
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2022

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