Antimicrobial resistance in low- and middle-income countries: current status and future directions

Giorgia Sulis, Sena Sayood, Sumanth Gandra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Introduction: Rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) globally continue to pose agrave threat to human health. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are disproportionately affected, partly due to the high burden of communicable diseases. Areas covered: We reviewed current trends in AMR in LMICs and examined the forces driving AMR in those regions. The state of interventions being undertaken to curb AMR across the developing world are discussed, and the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic on those efforts is explored. Expert opinion: The dynamics that drive AMR in LMICs are inseparable from the political, economic, socio-cultural, and environmental forces that shape these nations. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated underlying factors that increase AMR. Some progress is being made in implementing surveillance measures in LMICs, but implementation of concrete measures to meaningfully impact AMR rates must address the underlying structural issues that generate and promote AMR. This, in turn, will require large infrastructural investments and significant political will.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-160
Number of pages14
JournalExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2022


  • Antibiotic use
  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)
  • Antimicrobial stewardship
  • Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)
  • Review


Dive into the research topics of 'Antimicrobial resistance in low- and middle-income countries: current status and future directions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this