Monoclonal antibodies and ribonuclease protection were used to analyze antigenic and genomic diversity among 42 isolates of group A respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from studies of nosocomial RSV carried out at the University of Rochester during the 1974–1975 and 1975–1976 RSV seasons. Three distinct subgroups or lineages and a total of 12 viral variants were present. Against this background of diversity, an outbreak was recognized that included 13 indistinguishable isolates occurring during a 2-week period. This outbreak accounted for 6 of the 8 infants with nosocomial infection. In contrast to the limited diversity of the nosocomial isolates, isolates from the 10 infants with community-acquired infection included 8 variants. Like those from community outbreaks of RSV, isolates ofRSV from hospitalized patients are virologically heterogeneous. However, discrete outbreaks associated with transmission of a single strain can occur.