Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a global cause of death. Granuloma-associated lymphoid tissue (GrALT) correlates with protection during TB, but the mechanisms of protection are not understood. During TB, the transcription factor IRF4 in T cells but not B cells is required for the generation of the TH1 and TH17 subsets of helper T cells and follicular helper T (TFH)-like cellular responses. A population of IRF4+ T cells coexpress the transcription factor BCL6 during Mtb infection, and deletion of Bcl6 (Bcl6fl/fl) in CD4+ T cells (CD4cre) resulted in reduction of TFH-like cells, impaired localization within GrALT and increased Mtb burden. In contrast, the absence of germinal center B cells, MHC class II expression on B cells, antibody-producing plasma cells or interleukin-10-expressing B cells, did not increase Mtb susceptibility. Indeed, antigen-specific B cells enhance cytokine production and strategically localize TFH-like cells within GrALT via interactions between programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 and mediate Mtb control in both mice and macaques.