Antigen retrieval immunohistochemistry: Past, present, and future

Shan Rong Shi, Richard J. Cote, Clive R. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

456 Scopus citations


The antigen retrieval (AR) technique, which is predominantly based on high-temperature heating of tissues, is used as a non-enzymatic pretreatment for immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. It has been widely applied in pathology and analytical morphology. The existence of a growing body of literature on the AR technique raises a number of interesting issues for the further development of AR. These issues include the use of a 'test battery' and the concept of 'maximal retrieval' applied to the selection of optimal test protocols for the standardization of AR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-343
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1997


  • antigen retrieval
  • antigen-antibody recognition
  • formaldehyde
  • immunohistochemistry
  • microwave
  • protein conformation
  • tissue fixation


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