Systemic fungal infections (SFI) in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality. Preclinical studies have reported augmented antifungal activity of monocytes, macrophage cells, and neutrophils exposed to certain colony-stimulating factors (CSF), including GM-CSF. We conducted a retrospective descriptive epidemiologic study to examine the characteristics of 145 consecutive patients receiving HDC administered with or without autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and who subsequently received either GM-CSF and G-CSF, G-CSF alone, GM-CSF ± IL-3 or no CSF. The analysis of this patient population sought to define the incidence of SFI and its relationship to therapy with monocyte/macrophage-stimulating (MMS group) cytokines (GM-CSF and G-CSF; GM-CSF ± IL-3) or to cytokines which do not result in monocyte/macrophage stimulation (NMMS group, G-CSF alone or no CSF). Risk factors for the development of SFI were balanced between the MMS (n = 70) and NMMS (n = 75) groups. Two patients (2.9%) in the MMS and nine patients (12%) in the NMMS groups developed SFI. The risk ratio for developing SFI in the NMMS group compared to the MMS group was 4.20 (P = 0.023). This relationship was confounded, however, by the diagnosis of hematologic tumor or solid tumor (RR = 3.15, P = 0.082). SFI was the primary cause or major contributing factor in five of the 10 total deaths in our study population. Four SFI-related deaths occurred in the NMMS group and one SFI-related death occurred in the MMS group. Our data suggest a protective role for GM-CSF, IL-3 or other MMS cytokines in preventing SFI in patients receiving HDC. This should be further investigated as a potential complementary approach to conventional strategies in antifungal prophylaxis for patients receiving HDC.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Bone Marrow Transplantation|
|State||Published - Jul 1 1996|
- Antifungal agents
- Autologous transplantation
- High-dose therapy