The astonishing findings that active and passive immunization against amyloid-b (Aβ) in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dramatically decreased amyloid burden led to a rapid initiation of human clinical trials with much enthusiasm. However, methodological issues and adverse effects relating to these clinical trials arose, challenging the effectiveness and safety of these reagents. Efforts are now underway to develop safer immunotherapeutic approaches toward Aβ and the treatment of individuals at risk for AD before or in the earliest stages of cognitive decline with new hopes. Furthermore, several studies have shown tau as a potential immunotherapeutic target for the treatment of tauopathy-related diseases including frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD). Both active and passive immunization targeting tau in mouse models of tauopathy effectively decreased tau pathology while improving cognitive performance. These preclinical studies have highlighted tau as an alternative target with much anticipation of clinical trials to be undertaken.