Antibiotic-mediated perturbation of the gut microbiome is associated with numerous infectious and autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Yet, as the gut microbiome is a complex ecological network of microorganisms, the effects of antibiotics can be highly variable. With the advent of multi-omic approaches for systems-level profiling of microbial communities, we are beginning to identify microbiome-intrinsic and microbiome-extrinsic factors that affect microbiome dynamics during antibiotic exposure and subsequent recovery. In this Review, we discuss factors that influence restructuring of the gut microbiome on antibiotic exposure. We present an overview of the currently complex picture of treatment-induced changes to the microbial community and highlight essential considerations for future investigations of antibiotic-specific outcomes. Finally, we provide a synopsis of available strategies to minimize antibiotic-induced damage or to restore the pretreatment architectures of the gut microbial community.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)772-788
Number of pages17
JournalNature Reviews Microbiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023


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