Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) exerts multiple effects on viral and host cellular activities during viral infection, including unclear transport of the proviral integration complex, induction of cell cycle G 2 arrest, and cell death. In this report, we show that a fission yeast chaperone protein Hsp16 inhibits HIV-1 by suppressing these Vpr activities. This protein was identified through three independent genome-wide screens for multicopy suppressors of each of the three Vpr activities. Consistent with the properties of a heat shock protein, heat shock-induced elevation or overproduction of Hsp16 suppressed Vpr activities through direct protein-protein interaction. Even though Hsp16 shows a stronger suppressive effect on Vpr in fission yeast than in mammalian cells, similar effects were also observed in human cells when fission yeast hsp16 was expressed either in vpr-expressing cells or during HIV-1 infection, indicating a possible highly conserved Vpr suppressing activity. Furthermore, stable expression of hsp16 prior to HIV-1 infection inhibits viral replication in a Vpr-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that Hsp16 inhibits HIV-1 by suppressing Vpr-specific activities. This finding could potentially provide a new approach to studying the contribution of Vpr to viral pathogenesis and to reducing Vpr-mediated detrimental effects in HIV-infected patients.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Journal of virology|
|State||Published - Oct 1 2004|