We used mice from which the primary 410.4 mammary carcinoma had been surgically excised to assess the anti-metastatic activity of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CY) followed by vaccination with dinitrophenyl (DNP)-modified, irradiated, autologous tumor cells (ATC) admixed with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Our studies revealed that CY treatment of mice followed by vaccination with DNP-modified. irradiated, ATC admixed with BCG improved the relapse-free survival compared to the survival of mice receiving either CY followed by vaccination with unmodified, irradiated, ATC admixed with BCG, or saline (control group). In addition, our studies demonstrated the importance of CY administration in eliciting the therapeutic effect of DNP-modified ATC vaccine against metastatic disease. The therapeutic effect of CY followed by DNP-modified ATC vaccine was abrogated by depletion of CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells, illustrating the importance of both T-cell subsets for the anti-metastatic effect of this therapeutic protocol. In addition, neutralizing anti-IFN-γ monoclonal anti- body (mAb), or neutralizing anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mAb reduced the relapse-free survival of mice treated with CY followed by DNP-modified ATC vaccine, indicating the importance of both cytokines for the realization of the anti-metastatic effect of this therapeutic protocol. Since the therapeutic protocol used in our studies was similar to that employed by Berd et al. as postsurgical adjuvant therapy in cancer patients and yielded a comparable anti-metastatic effect, the information obtained from the current studies with our clinically relevant experimental tumor model is expected to shed light on the mechanism(s) by which the anti-metastatic effect of this post-surgical adjuvant therapy is realized in cancer patients.
- Autologous tumor cell vaccine
- DNP-modified tumor cell
- T-cell-mediated anti-metastatic activity