Anti-infectives and the risk of severe hypoglycemia in users of glipizide or glyburide

H. Schelleman, W. B. Bilker, C. M. Brensinger, F. Wan, S. Hennessy

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76 Scopus citations

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether orally administered anti-infectives increase the risk of severe hypoglycemia in users of glipizide or glyburide. We performed two case-control studies and two case-crossover studies using US Medicaid data. All the anti-infectives examined were associated with an elevated risk of severe hypoglycemia. Using cephalexin as the reference category, in glipizide users, statistically significant associations were found with co-trimoxazole (odds ratio (OR) = 3.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83-5.37); clarithromycin (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.69-4.98); fluconazole (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.23-5.23); and levofloxacin (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.35-3.25). In glyburide users, with cephalexin as the reference, statistically significant associations were found with clarithromycin (OR = 5.02; 95% CI: 3.35-7.54); levofloxacin (OR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.73-4.62); co-trimoxazole (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.59-4.52); fluconazole (OR = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.04-4.68); and ciprofloxacin (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.23-3.52). In conclusion, exposure to all studied anti-infective agents were associated with subsequent severe hypoglycemia. Using cephalexin as the reference, drug-drug interactions were evident with ciprofloxacin (in glyburide users only), clarithromycin, co-trimoxazole, fluconazole, and levofloxacin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-222
Number of pages9
JournalClinical pharmacology and therapeutics
Volume88
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2010

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