Lung transplantation is the only viable treatment option that can improve survival and enhance the quality of life of patients with end-stage lung diseases such as emphysema, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, the long-term survival of lung allografts is still limited by the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), an irreversible condition unresponsive to therapy. BOS is the most significant cause of long-term morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Over the past decade, several animal models have been developed to investigate BOS. These are valuable to elucidate the immunologic and pathologic mechanisms that lead to BOS and to test treatment options for BOS. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different animal models and highlight work that has been done with each model.