Ancestry specific associations of FTO gene variant and metabolic syndrome: A longitudinal ARIC study

Dale S. Hardy, Jane T. Garvin, Tesfaye B. Mersha, Susan B. Racette

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Abstract

Cross-sectional studies indicate that the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9939609 gene variant is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) primarily in European ancestry. However, the association is not fully elucidated in African Americans.We hypothesized that rs9939609 (AT = moderate-risk carriers or AA = high-risk carriers compared to TT = low-risk carriers) is associated with MetS and its component risk factors over time; and that its association is ancestry-specific. A secondary hypothesis was that higher levels of physical activity can decrease the deleterious effect of rs9939609 at higher body mass index (BMI).Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study repeated measures data from 4 visits (1987-1998) were obtained from the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes for 10,358 participants (8170 Whites and 2188 African Americans) aged 45 to 64 years at baseline. Guidelines for elevated blood pressure by the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association Task Force were updated within the MetS criteria. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals from generalized estimating equations assessed population-average risks.MetS was present among 3479 (42.6%) Whites and 1098 (50.2%) African Americans at baseline, and 50.3% Whites and 57% African Americans over 11-years of follow-up. Among MetS component risk factors, high waist circumference was most prevalent among White AT (RR=1.07; 1.06-1.09) and AA (RR=1.12; 1.10-1.14) higher-risk carriers. High triglycerides were elevated among African American AA high-risk carriers (RR=1.11; 1.02-1.21) compared to TT low-risk carriers. Over time, White AT-and AA higher-risk carriers had 1.07 and 1.08-fold increase (P<.0001) in MetS risk. Physical activity had independent protective effects on MetS among both races (P<.05). White AA high-risk carriers with normal BMI and low vs high physical activity had higher MetS risk (RR=1.69; 1.25-2.30 and RR=0.68;0.53-0.87, respectively). In rs9939609 × BMI× physical activity interaction, White A-allele high-risk carriers had lower MetS risk (RR=0.68; 0.53-0.87). Among Whites, physical activity can lessen the effect of rs9939609 and high BMI on risk for MetS.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere18820
JournalMedicine (United States)
Volume99
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • BMI
  • FTO rs9939609
  • ancestry
  • blood pressure
  • longitudinal
  • metabolic syndrome
  • physical activity
  • race

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