Anatomic shoulder arthroplasty in Walch type C glenoid deformity: mid- to long-term outcomes

Adam Z. Khan, Tyler A. Luthringer, Eitan M. Kohan, Luke L. Kowal, Alayna Vaughan, Benjamin M. Zmistowski, Jay D. Keener, Gerald R. Williams, Surena Namdari

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Background: Hypoplastic glenoid morphology in the setting of glenohumeral osteoarthritis is a rare yet complex surgical problem. Treatment of this patient population with anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (aTSA) remains controversial. Furthermore, there is no gold-standard approach, with limited guidance for surgeons on the need for glenoid version correction in the setting of a dysplastic glenoid. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mid- to long-term outcomes and reoperation rates of aTSA for the treatment of primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis with Walch type C glenoid deformity. Methods: This observational, retrospective cohort study identified patients with a Walch type C glenoid who underwent aTSA at 2 institutions between 2007 and 2016. Patients were contacted to complete updated patient-reported outcome measures at a minimum of 5.5 years postoperatively. The outcome measures collected included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) score. Secondary outcomes included any additional surgical procedures on the operative shoulder, patient satisfaction, and willingness to undergo aTSA again. Results: In total, 30 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 26 (86.7%) were able to be contacted to undergo final outcome evaluations. The mean age at the time of surgery was 61.3 years (range, 40.9-75.5 years), and 20 patients (76.9%) were men. The mean follow-up period was 8.5 years (range, 5.5-11.3 years) after surgery. Treatment was performed with an augmented component in 9 patients and with a standard component in 17. Of the 17 patients with non-augmented components, 9 underwent partial correction with asymmetrical reaming, 3 received a mini-inset glenoid component, and 2 had an anteriorly offset humeral component. At final follow-up, patients had a mean ASES score of 83.6 ± 16.7, ASES pain score of 24.7 ± 20.8, SANE score of 80.4 ± 20.9, and patient satisfaction rate of 84.1%. No statistically significant differences in any outcome measure were observed between patients with augmented glenoid components and those with non-augmented glenoid components. One revision to reverse shoulder arthroplasty was performed for instability at 7 years postoperatively after a traumatic dislocation. All patients reported that they would be willing to undergo the same surgical procedure again. Discussion: Despite variance in glenoid reconstructive approach, aTSA provides satisfactory and sustained improvements in patient-reported outcomes in patients with glenoid dysplasia and primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis with a low revision rate at a mean of 8.5 years. Anatomic shoulder arthroplasty should remain a surgical option in patients with Walch type C glenoid deformity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S23-S31
JournalJournal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • Case Series
  • Glenohumeral osteoarthritis
  • Level IV
  • Treatment Study
  • Walch C
  • anatomic shoulder arthroplasty
  • glenoid dysplasia
  • glenoid retroversion
  • patient outcomes


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