Anatomic and Pathologic Variability During Radiotherapy for a Hybrid Active Breath-Hold Gating Technique

Carri K. Glide-Hurst, Ellen Gopan, Geoffrey D. Hugo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Purpose: To evaluate intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung volume and position using a hybrid active breath-hold gating technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 159 repeat normal inspiration active breath-hold CTs were acquired weekly during radiotherapy for 9 lung cancer patients (12-21 scans per patient). A physician delineated the gross tumor volume (GTV), lungs, and spinal cord on the first breath-hold CT, and contours were propagated semiautomatically. Intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung position and volume were evaluated. Tumor centroid and border variability were quantified. Results: On average, intrafraction variability of lung and GTV centroid position was <2.0 mm. Interfraction population variability was 3.6-6.7 mm (systematic) and 3.1-3.9 mm (random) for the GTV centroid and 1.0-3.3 mm (systematic) and 1.5-2.6 mm (random) for the lungs. Tumor volume regressed 44.6% ± 23.2%. Gross tumor volume border variability was patient specific and demonstrated anisotropic shape change in some subjects. Interfraction GTV positional variability was associated with tumor volume regression and contralateral lung volume (p < 0.05). Inter-breath-hold reproducibility was unaffected by time point in the treatment course (p > 0.1). Increases in free-breathing tidal volume were associated with increases in breath-hold ipsilateral lung volume (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The breath-hold technique was reproducible within 2 mm during each fraction. Interfraction variability of GTV position and shape was substantial because of tumor volume and breath-hold lung volume change during therapy. These results support the feasibility of a hybrid breath-hold gating technique and suggest that online image guidance would be beneficial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)910-917
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2010


  • Active breath hold
  • Interfraction variability
  • Intrafraction variability
  • Lung cancer
  • Respiratory motion


Dive into the research topics of 'Anatomic and Pathologic Variability During Radiotherapy for a Hybrid Active Breath-Hold Gating Technique'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this