Analysis of Ureteral Diameter and Peristalsis in Response to Irrigant Fluid Temperature Changes in an in Vivo Porcine Model

Roshan M. Patel, Pengbo Jiang, Rajiv Karani, Tarik Phillips, Raphael B. Arada, Lillian Xie, Hyder Said, Shlomi Tapiero, Jaime Landman, Ted Farzaneh, Ramakrishna Venkatesh, Ralph V. Clayman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: It has been previously reported that warming irrigation fluid higher than body temperature may decrease ureteral spasm and thereby facilitate ureteroscopic access to the proximal ureter. Our objective was to examine the effects on ureteral peristalsis and ureteral diameter if the irrigant was warmed to just under the biological threshold for injury. Materials and Methods: Two female adult Yorkshire pigs were studied in this pilot study. In the first pig, a dilute mixture of contrast and irrigation fluid at 37°C and then at 43°C was instilled for 30 minutes into each renal pelvis through a ureteral catheter at 40 mm Hg. Retrograde pyelogram images were captured for each trial and the caliber of the ureter was measured using Vitrea® software. In the second pig, a lumbotomy was performed, and a magnetic sensor was placed on the extraluminal surface of the ureter to monitor ureteral peristalsis while repeating the aforedescribed regimen. Thirty minutes after the first regimen, the force exerted during placement of a 16F ureteral access sheath (UAS) was recorded at both temperatures using the University of California, Irvine Ureteral Force Sensor. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in ureteral caliber along the length of the ureter at 43°C (p = 0.87, p = 0.32, p = 0.66 for proximal, middle, and distal ureter, respectively). Indeed, there was an increase in peristalsis from baseline with fluid irrigation at 37°C and at 43°C (59% and 65%, respectively). There was no significant difference in the force exerted for UAS placement at either temperature. On histologic analysis, there were no significant changes in ureteral histology or luminal diameter. Conclusions: In a porcine model, warming irrigation fluid to just under the biological threshold for injury did not increase ureteral caliber, decrease ureteral peristalsis, or facilitate UAS placement. As such, during ureteroscopy, we continue to warm our irrigation fluid just to body temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1236-1243
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Endourology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • calculi
  • ureter
  • ureteroscopy


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