Analysis and Classification of Postcatheterization Femoral Arteriovenous Fistulas Based on Color Doppler Examinations

William D. Middleton, Kathryn A. Robinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To analyze and classify arterial supply and venous drainage of postcatheterization femoral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). Methods: A review of extremity Doppler reports identified 77 femoral AVFs in 75 patients. Doppler exams were reviewed retrospectively. Fistulas were classified as above or below the common femoral artery bifurcation and subclassified based on the location of arterial inflow and venous outflow. Results: Arterial inflow originated above the femoral bifurcation in 32 cases. The communication was between the common femoral artery and the superficial circumflex iliac vein in 25 of 32 cases and between a branch of the common femoral or external iliac artery and the common femoral or external iliac vein in 4 of 32 cases. In 3 of 32 cases, AVFs arose from the common femoral artery, but the venous outflow was not determined. Arterial inflow originated from the superficial femoral artery in 23 cases. Venous outflow originated from the common femoral vein in 10 of 23 cases, the femoral vein in 7 of 23 cases, and the lateral circumflex femoral vein in 6 of 23 cases. Arterial inflow originated from the deep femoral artery in 12 cases. Venous outflow originated from the common femoral vein in 6 of 12 cases and from the lateral circumflex femoral vein 6 of 12 cases. In 8 cases, the AVF originated below the bifurcation, but the arterial inflow was not classified. In 2 cases, it was impossible to determine if the AVF originated above or below the bifurcation. Conclusions: Iatrogenic femoral AVFs arise above the femoral bifurcation more often than previously recognized. Classification based on the arterial inflow and venous outflow provides a straightforward means of describing these fistulas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-216
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Volume41
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • classification femoral arteriovenous fistula
  • complications femoral catheterization
  • femoral arteriovenous fistula
  • iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula
  • postcatheterization arteriovenous fistula

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