Analyses of patients who self-administered diazepam nasal spray for acute treatment of seizure clusters

Sunita N. Misra, Michael R. Sperling, Vikram R. Rao, Jurriaan M. Peters, Patricia Penovich, James Wheless, R. Edward Hogan, Charles S. Davis, Enrique Carrazana, Adrian L. Rabinowicz

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For acute treatment of seizure clusters in patients with epilepsy, intranasal administration of acute seizure therapies has been shown to provide accessibility and ease of use to care partners as well as the potential for self-administration by patients. Diazepam nasal spray (Valtoco®) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (ie, seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) in patients with epilepsy aged ≥6 years. Self-administration consistent with the prescribing information is feasible and was reported by a subgroup of patients (n = 27 of 163) in a long-term phase 3 safety study. Data regarding self-administration among these patients with seizure clusters are examined here to explore the safety profiles and measures of effectiveness, as well as the quality of life of those who self-treated. In addition, this focused look at patients who self-administered diazepam nasal spray may offer some insights into the characteristics of patients who may be appropriate for self-administration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100644
JournalEpilepsy and Behavior Reports
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • Acute repetitive seizure
  • Benzodiazepine
  • Intranasal
  • Rescue medication
  • Seizure emergency


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