12 Scopus citations


Introduction: A survey of FDA-approved biologicals focused upon the development of immunotherapies over time to gain insight on the challenges and trends of vaccine development today. Areas covered: A total of 135 different immune-based therapies were broadly divided into passive or active immunotherapies. Whereas just over half of passive immunotherapies targeted infectious diseases, the vast majority of active immunotherapy products (vaccines) were directed against a handful of viral and bacterial pathogens. We also analyze changes in vaccine strategy, including the use of viable antigens and subunit approaches. Expert commentary: An analysis of vaccine innovators revealed an ever-increasing presence of the private sector and a relatively diminishing role for the public sector. Whereas North American companies have contributed to the approval of two-thirds of vaccines, European companies have regained parity in terms of hosting innovators of vaccine research and development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1253-1266
Number of pages14
JournalExpert Review of Vaccines
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2 2017


  • Pathogens
  • active immunization
  • passive immunization
  • vaccine development
  • vaccine innovation


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