An International Phase 2 Study of Pazopanib in Progressive and Metastatic Thyroglobulin Antibody Negative Radioactive Iodine Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Keith C. Bible, Michael E. Menefee, Chia Chi Josh Lin, Michael J. Millward, William J. Maples, Boon Cher Goh, Nina J. Karlin, Madeleine A. Kane, Douglas R. Adkins, Julian R. Molina, Ross C. Donehower, Wan Teck Lim, Patrick J. Flynn, Ronald L. Richardson, Anne M. Traynor, Joseph Rubin, Patricia M. Lorusso, Robert C. Smallridge, Jill K. Burton, Vera J. SumanAditi Kumar, Jessie S. Voss, Kandalaria M. Rumilla, Benjamin R. Kipp, Ashish V. Chintakuntlawar, Pamela Harris, Charles Erlichman

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16 Scopus citations


Introduction: Multikinase inhibitors have clinical activity in radioactive iodine refractory (RAIR) differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) but are not curative; optimal management and salvage therapies remain unclear. This study assessed clinical effects of pazopanib therapy in RAIR-DTC patients with progressive disease, examining in parallel biomarker that might forecast/precede therapeutic response. Methods: Assessment of responses and toxicities and of any association between thyroglobulin (Tg) changes cycle 1 and RECIST (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors) response to pazopanib therapy were prospectively undertaken in Tg antibody negative RAIR-DTC patients. RECIST progressive metastatic disease <6 months preceding enrollment was required. With a sample size of 68 (assuming 23 attaining partial response [PR]), there would be 90% chance of detecting a difference of >30% when the proportion of patients attaining PR whose Tg values decrease by >50% is >50% cycle 1 (one-sided α = 0.10, two sample test of proportions). Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) change or mutational status or pretreatment were also explored as early correlates of eventual RECIST response. Results: From 2009 to 2011, 60 individuals were treated and evaluated; (one additional patient withdrew; another was found ineligible before therapy initiation); 91.7% had previous systemic therapy beyond RAI. Adverse events included one death (thromboembolic) deemed possibly pazopanib associated. Twenty-two confirmed RECIST PRs resulted (36.7%, confidence interval; CI [24.6-50.1]); mean administered 4-week cycles was 10. Among 44 fully accessible patients, the Tg nadir was greater among the 20 attaining PR (median: -86.8%; interquartile range [IQR]: -90.7% to -70.9%) compared with the 28 who did not (median: -69.0%; IQR: -78.1% to -27.7%, Wilcoxon rank-sum test: p = 0.002). However, the difference in the proportion of PRs among those whose Tg fell ≥50% after cycle 1 versus those that did not were not significantly correlated (-23.5% [CI: -55.3 to 8.3]; Fisher's exact test p-value = 0.27). RECIST response was also not correlated with/predicted by early MCV change, receipt of prior therapy, or tumor mutational status. Conclusions: This trial prospectively confirmed pazopanib to have clinical activity and manageable toxicities in patients with progressive RAIR-DTC. Response to pazopanib, however, was not robustly forecast by early associated changes in Tg or MCV, by prior therapy, or by tumor mutational status. NCT00625846.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1254-1262
Number of pages9
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • differentiated thyroid cancer
  • kinase inhibitor
  • pazopanib
  • radioactive iodine refractory


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