An automated surveillance strategy to identify infectious complications after cardiac implantable electronic device procedures

Joel C. Boggan, Arthur W. Baker, Sarah S. Lewis, Kristen V. Dicks, Michael J. Durkin, Rebekah W. Moehring, Luke F. Chen, Lauren P. Knelson, Donald D. Hegland, Deverick J. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background. The optimum approach for infectious complication surveillance for cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures is unclear. We created an automated surveillance tool for infectious complications after CIED procedures. Methods. Adults having CIED procedures between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011 at Duke University Hospital were identified retrospectively using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) procedure codes. Potential infections were identified with combinations of ICD-9 diagnosis codes and microbiology data for 365 days postprocedure. All microbiology-identified and a subset of ICD-9 code-identified possible cases, as well as a subset of procedures without microbiology or ICD-9 codes, were reviewed. Test performance characteristics for specific queries were calculated. Results. Overall, 6097 patients had 7137 procedures. Of these, 1686 procedures with potential infectious complications were identified: 174 by both ICD-9 code and microbiology, 14 only by microbiology, and 1498 only by ICD-9 criteria. We reviewed 558 potential cases, including all 188 microbiology-identified cases, 250 randomly selected ICD-9 cases, and 120 with neither. Overall, 65 unique infections were identified, including 5 of 250 reviewed cases identified only by ICD-9 codes. Queries that included microbiology data and ICD-9 code 996.61 had good overall test performance, with sensitivities of approximately 90% and specificities of approximately 80%. Queries with ICD-9 codes alone had poor specificity. Extrapolation of reviewed infectious rates to nonreviewed cases yields an estimated rate of infection of 1.3%. Conclusions. Electronic queries with combinations of ICD-9 codes and microbiologic data can be created and have good test performance characteristics for identifying likely infectious complications of CIED procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015


  • Cardiac implantable
  • Electronic devices infection control
  • Electronic surveillance


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