Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor binding protein (PBP), a nuclear receptor coactivator, interacts with estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the absence of estrogen. This interaction was enhanced in the presence of estrogen but was reduced in the presence of antiestrogen, tamoxifen. Transfection of PBP in CV-1 cells resulted in enhancement of estrogen- dependent transcription, indicating that PBP serves as a coactivator in ER signaling. To examine whether overexpression of PBP plays a role in breast cancer because of its coactivator function in ER signaling, we determined the levels of PBP expression in breast tumors. High levels of PBP expression were detected in ≃50% of primary breast cancers and breast cancer cell lines by ribonuclease protection analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunoperoxidase staining. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of human chromosomes revealed that the PBP gene is located on chromosome 17q12, a region that is amplified in some breast cancers. We found PBP gene amplification in ≃24% (6/25) of breast tumors and ≃30% (2/6) of breast cancer cell lines, implying that PBP gene overexpression can occur independent of gene amplification. This gene comprises 17 exons that, together, span >37 kilobases. The 5'-flanking region of 2.5 kilobase pairs inserted into a luciferase reporter vector revealed that the promoter activity in CV-1 cells increased by deletion of nucleotides from -2,500 to -273. The -273 to + 1 region, which exhibited high promoter activity, contains a typical CCAT box and multiple cis-elements such as C/EBPβ, YY1, c-Ets-1, AP1, AP2, and NFκB binding sites. These observations, in particular PBP gene amplification, suggest that PBP, by its ability to function as ERα coactivator, might play a role in mammary epithelial differentiation and in breast carcinogenesis.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Sep 14 1999|