Amniocentesis, Chorionic Villus Sampling, and Fetal Blood Sampling

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter addresses current techniques and the safety of genetic amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and fetal blood sampling. Ideally, couples should have the opportunity to discuss their genetic risks and available antenatal testing options before pregnancy. Couples must understand the risks of amniocentesis itself, the accuracy and limitations of antenatal diagnosis, the time required before results become available, technical problems potentially necessitating a second amniocentesis, and the rare possibility of an inability to make a diagnosis. The chapter provides data led to the recommendation that all genetic amniocenteses must be preceded immediately by a careful ultrasonographic evaluation. The data also justify the recommendation that continuous ultrasonographic monitoring of the needle tip throughout the amniocentesis is mandatory. Unlike amniocentesis, which evaluates direct fetal cells, chorionic villi have three major components: the syncytiotrophoblasts, cytotrophoblasts, and an inner mesodermal layer that contains fetal blood capillaries.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGenetic Disorders and the Fetus
Subtitle of host publicationDiagnosis, Prevention and Treatment: Seventh Edition
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)9781118981559
ISBN (Print)9781118981528
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


  • Amniocentesis
  • Antenatal testing
  • Chorionic villus sampling
  • Fetal blood sampling
  • Genetic risks
  • Ultrasonographic evaluation


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