Aminoglycoside ototoxicity

Mark Douglas Rizzi, Keiko Hirose

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

146 Scopus citations

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize mechanisms of ototoxicity associated with aminoglycoside antibiotics and discuss possible protective strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in the past 15 years have demonstrated that aminoglycoside ototoxicity is mediated by an apoptotic form of cell death which employs caspase-dependent pathways. Reactive oxygen species have been demonstrated in the sensory epithelium after aminoglycoside adminstration and methods of blocking reactive oxygen species in the cochlea have been attempted, but not found to be uniformly effective in protecting against cell loss or threshold shift. Aspirin has recently been studied in a human chemoprevention trial in China, and while data suggest the possibility of protection, there was a significant increase in gastrointestinal bleeds associated with aspirin use. SUMMARY: There are currently no recommendations for pretreatment or posttreatment therapies to attenuate ototoxicity associated with aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our understanding of the mechanisms of ototoxicity has improved and apoptotic pathways are clearly responsible for hair cell demise. Further studies are necessary before significant improvement in hearing outcome can be expected after use of ototoxic antibiotics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)352-357
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Volume15
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2007

Keywords

  • Aminoglycoside
  • Hair cell
  • Ototoxicity
  • Reactive oxygen

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