Aminode: Identification of Evolutionary Constraints in the Human Proteome

Kevin T. Chang, Junyan Guo, Alberto Di Ronza, Marco Sardiello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Evolutionarily constrained regions (ECRs) are a hallmark for sites of critical importance for a protein's structure or function. ECRs can be inferred by comparing the amino acid sequences from multiple protein homologs in the context of the evolutionary relationships that link the analyzed proteins. The compilation and analysis of the datasets required to infer ECRs, however, are time consuming and require skills in coding and bioinformatics, which can limit the use of ECR analysis in the biomedical community. Here, we developed Aminode, a user-friendly webtool for the routine and rapid inference of ECRs. Aminode is pre-loaded with the results of the analysis of the whole human proteome compared with proteomes from 62 additional vertebrate species. Profiles of the relative rates of amino acid substitution and ECR maps of human proteins are available for immediate search and download on the Aminode website. Aminode can also be used for custom analyses of protein families of interest. Interestingly, mapping of known missense variants shows great enrichment of pathogenic variants and depletion of non-pathogenic variants in Aminode-generated ECRs, suggesting that ECR analysis may help evaluate the potential pathogenicity of variants of unknown significance. Aminode is freely available at

Original languageEnglish
Article number1357
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018


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