Amino Acid Residue Mutations Uncouple Cooperative Effects in Escherichia coli D-3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase

Gregory A. Grant, Zhiqin Hu, Xiao Lan Xu

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D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli contains two Gly-Gly sequences that occur at junctions between domains. A previous study (Grant, G. A., Xu, X. L., and Hu, Z. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 7316-7319) determined that the Gly-Gly sequence at the junction between the regulatory and substrate binding domain functions as a hinge between the domains. Mutations in this area significantly decrease the ability of serine to inhibit activity but have little effect on the Km and kcat. Conversely, the present study shows that mutations to the Gly-Gly sequence at the junction of the substrate and nucleotide binding domains, which form the active site cleft, have a significant effect on the kcat of the enzyme without substantially altering the enzyme's sensitivity to serine. In addition, mutation of Gly-294, but not Gly-295, has a profound effect on the cooperativity of serine inhibition. Interestingly, even though cooperativity of inhibition can be reduced significantly, there is little apparent effect on the cooperativity of serine binding itself. An additional mutant, G336V,G337V, also reduces the cooperativity of inhibition, but in this case serine binding also is reduced to the point at which it cannot be measured by equilibrium dialysis. The double mutant G294V,G336V demonstrates that strain imposed by mutation at one hinge can be relieved partially by mutation at the other hinge, demonstrating linkage between the two hinge regions. These data show that the two cooperative processes, serine binding and catalytic inhibition, can be uncoupled. Consideration of the allowable torsional angles for the side chains introduced by the mutations yields a range of values for these angles that the glycine residues likely occupy in the native enzyme. A comparison of these values with the torsional angles found for the inhibited enzyme from crystal coordinates provides potential beginning and ending orientations for the transition from active to inhibited enzyme, which will allow modeling of the dynamics of domain movement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17844-17850
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number21
StatePublished - Jan 25 2001


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