American society of emergency radiology multicenter blunt splenic trauma study: CT and clinical findings

James T. Lee, Emily Slade, Jennifer Uyeda, Scott D. Steenburg, Suzanne T. Chong, Richard Tsai, Demetrios Raptis, Ken F. Linnau, Naga R. Chinapuvvula, Matthew P. Dattwyler, Adam Dugan, Arthur Baghdanian, Carl Flink, Armonde Baghdanian, Christina A. LeBedis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Treatment of blunt splenic trauma (BST) continues to evolve with improved imaging for detection of splenic vascular injuries. Purpose: To report on treatments for BST from 11 trauma centers, the frequency and clinical impact of splenic vascular injuries, and factors influencing treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients were retrospectively identified as having BST between January 2011 and December 2018, and clinical, imaging, and outcome data were recorded. Patient data were summarized descriptively, both overall and stratified by initial treatment received (nonoperative management [NOM], angiography, or surgery). Regression analyses were used to examine the primary outcomes of interest, which were initial treatment received and length of stay (LOS). Results: This study evaluated 1373 patients (mean age, 42 years 6 18; 845 men). Initial treatments included NOM in 849 patients, interventional radiology (IR) in 240 patients, and surgery in 284 patients. Rates from CT reporting were 22% (304 of 1373) for active splenic hemorrhage (ASH) and 20% (276 of 1373) for contained vascular injury (CVI). IR management of high-grade injuries increased 15.6%, from 28.6% (eight of 28) to 44.2% (57 of 129) (2011–2012 vs 2017–2018). Patients who were treated invasively had a higher injury severity score (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.05; P , .001), lower temperature (OR, 0.97; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.00; P = .03), and a lower hematocrit (OR, 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99; P = .003) and were more likely to show ASH (OR, 8.05; 95% CI: 5.35, 12.26; P , .001) or CVI (OR, 2.70; 95% CI: 1.64, 4.44; P , .001) on CT images, have spleen-only injures (OR, 2.35; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.8; P , .001), and have been administered blood product for fewer than 24 hours (OR, 2.35; 95% CI: 1.58, 3.51; P , .001) compared with those chosen for NOM, after adjusting for key demographic and clinical variables. After adjustment, factors associated with a shorter LOS were female sex (OR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96; P = .009), spleen-only injury (OR, 0.72; 95% CI: 0.6, 0.86; P , .001), higher admission hematocrit (OR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.6, 0.86; P , .001), and presence of ASH at CT (OR, 0.74; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.88; P , .001). Conclusion: Contained vascular injury and active splenic hemorrhage (ASH) were frequently reported, and rates of interventional radiologic management increased during the study period. ASH was associated with a shorter length of stay, and patients with ASH had eight times the odds of undergoing invasive treatment compared with undergoing nonoperative management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122-130
Number of pages9
JournalRadiology
Volume299
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2021

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