American Association of Clinical Endocrinology Disease State Clinical Review: The Clinical Utility of Minimally Invasive Interventional Procedures in the Management of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Lesions

Sina Jasim, Kepal N. Patel, Gregory Randolph, Stephanie Adams, Roberto Cesareo, Edward Condon, Tara Henrichsen, Malak Itani, Maria Papaleontiou, Leonardo Rangel, John Schmitz, Marius N. Stan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this disease state clinical review is to provide clinicians with a summary of the nonsurgical, minimally invasive approaches to managing thyroid nodules/malignancy, including their indications, efficacy, side effects, and outcomes. Methods: A literature search was conducted using PubMed and appropriate key words. Relevant publications on minimally invasive thyroid techniques were used to create this clinical review. Results: Minimally invasive thyroid techniques are effective and safe when performed by experienced centers. To date, percutaneous ethanol injection therapy is recommended for recurrent benign thyroid cysts. Both ultrasound-guided laser and radiofrequency ablation can be safely used for symptomatic solid nodules, both toxic and nontoxic. Microwave ablation and high-intensity focused ultrasound are newer approaches that need further clinical evaluation. Despite limited data, encouraging results suggest that minimally invasive techniques can also be used in small-size primary and locally recurrent thyroid cancer. Conclusion: Surgery and radioiodine treatment remain the conventional and established treatments for nodular goiters. However, the new image-guided minimally invasive approaches appear safe and effective alternatives when used appropriately and by trained professionals to treat symptomatic or enlarging thyroid masses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-448
Number of pages16
JournalEndocrine Practice
Volume28
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Keywords

  • ethanol
  • radiofrequency
  • thermal ablation
  • thyroid cancer
  • thyroid nodule

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