Alternatives to Topical Glaucoma Medication for Glaucoma Management

Sahar Bedrood, John Berdahl, Arsham Sheybani, Inder Paul Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Topical glaucoma medications have favorable safety and efficacy, but their use is limited by factors such as side effects, nonadherence, costs, ocular surface disease, intraocular pressure fluctuations, diminished quality of life, and the inherent difficulty of penetrating the corneal surface. Although traditionally these limitations have been accepted as an inevitable part of glaucoma treatment, a rapidly-evolving arena of minimally invasive surgical and laser interventions has initiated the beginnings of a reevaluation of the glaucoma treatment paradigm. This reevaluation encompasses an overall shift away from the reactive, topical-medication-first default and a shift toward earlier intervention with laser or surgical therapies such as selective laser trabeculoplasty, sustained-release drug delivery, and micro-invasive glaucoma surgery. Aside from favorable safety, these interventions may have clinically important attributes such as consistent IOP control, cost-effectiveness, independence from patient adherence, prevention of disease progression, and improved quality of life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3899-3913
Number of pages15
JournalClinical Ophthalmology
StatePublished - 2023


  • MIGS
  • intervention
  • medication
  • selective laser trabeculoplasty
  • sustained release drug delivery
  • treatment


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