Altered microglia morphology and higher resilience to stress-induced depression-like behavior in CX3CR1-deficient mice

Sabine Hellwig, Simone Brioschi, Sandra Dieni, Lars Frings, Annette Masuch, Thomas Blank, Knut Biber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

132 Scopus citations

Abstract

Microglia are suggested to be involved in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed changes in microglia morphology have been reported in different mouse models of depression. A crucial regulatory system for microglia function is the well-defined CX3C axis. Thus, we aimed to clarify the role of microglia and CX3CR1 in depressive behavior by subjecting CX3CR1-deficient mice to a particular chronic despair model (CDM) paradigm known to exhibit face validity to major depressive disorder. In wild-type mice we observed the development of chronic depressive-like behavior after 5 days of repetitive swim stress. 3D-reconstructions of Iba-1-labeled microglia in the dentate molecular layer revealed that behavioral effects were associated with changes in microglia morphology towards a state of hyper-ramification. Chronic treatment with the anti-depressant venlafaxine ameliorated depression-like behavior and restored microglia morphology. In contrast, CX3CR1 deficient mice showed a clear resistance to either (i) stress-induced depressive-like behavior, (ii) changes in microglia morphology and (iii) antidepressant treatment. Our data point towards a role of hyper-ramified microglia in the etiology of chronic depression. The lack of effects in CX3CR1 deficient mice suggests that microglia hyper-ramification is controlled by neuron-microglia signaling via the CX3C axis. However, it remains to be elucidated how hyper-ramified microglia contribute to depressive-like behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)126-137
Number of pages12
JournalBrain, Behavior, and Immunity
Volume55
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016

Keywords

  • CX3CL1
  • CX3CR1
  • Depression
  • Fractalkine
  • Microglia
  • Stress

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