Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein is upregulated in severe COVID-19 patients and decreases neutrophil NETs in SARS-CoV-2 infection

Fabiola Mestriner, Daniely F. Francisco, Ligia C.B. Campos, Ariel E.S. Couto, Thais F.C. Fraga-Silva, Vinicius Flora Dugaich, Carolina D Avila-Mesquita, Henrique Zukowski Kovacs, Jociany L. Vasconcelos, Elizabete R. Milani, Keyla Santos Guedes de Sá, Ronaldo Martins, Maria C. Jordani, Carlos A.C. Corsi, Jessyca M. Barbosa, Tauana Vasconcelos, Mayra Gonçalves Menegueti, Julio Neto, Rafael M. da Costa, Paulo R.B. EvoraEurico Arruda, Rita Tostes, Katarzyna Polonis, Vania L.D. Bonato, Maria Auxiliadora-Martins, Mauricio S. Ribeiro, Christiane Becari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Orosomucoid, or alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), is a major acute-phase protein expressed in response to systemic injury and inflammation. AGP has been described as an inhibitor of neutrophil migration on sepsis, particularly its immunomodulation effects. AGP's biological functions in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are not understood. We sought to investigate the role of AGP in severe COVID-19 infection patients and neutrophils infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological data, AGP levels, and other laboratory parameters were measured in blood samples from 56 subjects hospitalized in the ICU with SARS-CoV-2 infection. To evaluate the role of AGP in NETosis in neutrophils, blood samples from health patients were collected, and neutrophils were separated and infected with SARS-CoV-2. Those neutrophils were treated with AGP or vehicle, and NETosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. AGP was upregulated in severe COVID-19 patients (p<0.05). AGP level was positively correlated with IL-6 and C-reactive protein (respectively, p=0.005, p=0.002) and negatively correlated with lactate (p=0.004). AGP treatment downregulated early and late NETosis (respectively, 35.7% and 43.5%) in neutrophils infected with SARS-CoV-2 and up-regulated IL-6 supernatant culture expression (p<0.0001). Our data showed increased AGP in COVID-19 infection and contributed to NETosis regulation and increased IL-6 production, possibly related to the Cytokine storm in COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Article number156503
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP)
  • COVID-19 pathophysiology
  • NETosis
  • SARS-CoV-2 infection


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