Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia

Elizabeth A. Platz, Eric B. Rimm, Ichiro Kawachi, Graham A. Colditz, Meir J. Stampfer, Walter C. Willett, Edward Giovannucci

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117 Scopus citations


Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were evaluated in relation to development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among 29,386 members of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men who were 40-75 years old in 1986 and free of prior BPH surgery, diagnosed cancer at baseline, and prostate cancer at baseline and during follow-up were followed for incidence of BPH surgery from 1986 to 1994. Cases were men reported BPH surgery between 1986 and 1994 (n = 1,813) or who scored ≥15 points of 35 on seven lower urinary tract symptom questions modified from the American Urological Association symptom index in 1992 and 1994 (n = 1,786); noncases were men who scored ≤7 points (n = 20,840). After controlling for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, physical activity, and mutually for alcohol intake and smoking, moderate alcohol consumption was inversely related with total BPH (30.1-50 g/day vs. 0: odds ratio (OR) = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.70; p trend < 0.0001), although the relation was attenuated at high intake (≥50.1 g/day vs. 0: OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.90). Current cigarette smoking was positively related to total BPH only among those who smoked 35 or more cigarettes/day (compared with never smokers: OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.97). These findings suggest that moderate alcohol consumption and avoidance of smoking may benefit BPH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-115
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 15 1999


  • Alcohol drinking
  • Cohort studies
  • Prostatectomy
  • Prostatic hyperplasia
  • Risk factors
  • Smoking


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