1 Scopus citations


Objective/Background: Children with tracheostomies are at an increased risk of bacterial respiratory tract infections. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are more difficult to treat and can result in severe complications. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors and sequelae of MDRO positivity in tracheostomy and chronic ventilator-dependent children. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 75 tracheostomy and chronic ventilator-dependent children at St. Louis Children's Hospital. Data on demographics, respiratory cultures, hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) visits, and antibiotic usage were collected. We determined the frequency of MDRO positivity and compared the number of hospitalizations, number of ED visits, and antibiotic usage in patients with and without MDRO-positive cultures. Patient clinical variables were analyzed before and after MDRO acquisition. Results: We found 75.7% (56/74) of our participants had an MDRO-positive culture, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, n = 36, 64%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 8, 14%) being the most commonly detected organisms. Participants with a greater number of annual nonpulmonary admissions (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.21–3.29), p = 0.008], inpatient antibiotic courses [OR = 1.27, 95% CI (1.07–1.50), p = 0.006], total antibiotic courses [OR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.08–1.48), p = 0.004], and chronic antibiotic use [OR = 2.31, 95% CI (1.12–4.74), p = 0.03] were at an increased risk for MDRO positivity. Those who were MDRO-positive had more pulmonary admissions following MDRO acquisition compared those who were MDRO-negative [p = 0.005] but not more antibiotic usage or ED visits. Conclusion: Frequent antibiotic usage and hospitalizations increase the risk of MDRO acquisition in children with tracheostomies and ventilator-dependence. Further antibiotic stewardship may help prevent resistant infections in technology-dependent children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-34
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Pulmonology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • antibiotics
  • chronic respiratory failure
  • emergency department visits
  • hospitalizations
  • multidrug-resistant organism
  • pediatric tracheostomy


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