New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the impact of airway cholinergic history on the properties of airway mucus secretion in a cystic fibrosis-like environment? What is the main finding and its importance? Prior cholinergic challenge slightly modifies the characteristics of mucus secretion in response to a second cholinergic challenge in a diminished bicarbonate and chloride transport environment. Such modifications might lead to retention of mucus on the airway surface, thereby potentiating exacerbations of airway disease. Abstract: Viral infections precipitate exacerbations in many airway diseases, including asthma and cystic fibrosis. Although viral infections increase cholinergic transmission, few studies have examined how cholinergic history modifies subsequent cholinergic responses in the airway. In our previous work, we found that airway resistance in response to a second cholinergic challenge was increased in young pigs with a history of airway cholinergic stimulation. Given that mucus secretion is regulated by the cholinergic nervous system and that abnormal airway mucus contributes to exacerbations of airway disease, we hypothesized that prior cholinergic challenge would also modify subsequent mucus responses to a secondary cholinergic challenge. Using our established cholinergic challenge–rechallenge model in pigs, we atomized the cholinergic agonist bethanechol or saline control to pig airways. Forty-eight hours later, we removed tracheas and measured mucus secretion properties in response to a second cholinergic stimulation. The second cholinergic stimulation was conducted in conditions of diminished chloride and bicarbonate transport to mimic a cystic fibrosis-like environment. In pigs previously challenged with bethanechol, a second cholinergic stimulation produced a mild increase in sheet-like mucus films; these films were scarcely observed in animals originally challenged with saline control. The subtle increase in mucus films was not associated with changes in mucociliary transport. These data suggest that prior cholinergic history might modify mucus secretion characteristics with subsequent stimulation in certain environmental conditions or disease states. Such modifications and/or more repetitive stimulation might lead to retention of mucus on the airway surface, thereby potentiating exacerbations of airway disease.