Air pollutant exposure and stove use assessment methods for the household air pollution intervention network (HAPIN) trial

Michael A. Johnson, Kyle Steenland, Ricardo Piedrahita, Maggie L. Clark, Ajay Pillarisetti, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Jennifer L. Peel, Luke P. Naeher, Jiawen Liao, Daniel Wilson, Jeremy Sarnat, Lindsay J. Underhill, Vanessa Burrowes, John P. McCracken, Ghislaine Rosa, Joshua Rosenthal, Sankar Sambandam, Oscar de Leon, Miles A. Kirby, Katherine KearnsWilliam Checkley, Thomas Clasen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: High quality personal exposure data is fundamental to understanding the health implications of household energy interventions, interpreting analyses across assigned study arms, and characterizing exposure–response relationships for household air pollution. This paper describes the exposure data collection for the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN), a multicountry randomized controlled trial of liquefied petroleum gas stoves and fuel among 3,200 households in India, Rwanda, Guatemala, and Peru. OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives of the exposure assessment are to estimate the exposure contrast achieved following a clean fuel intervention and to provide data for analyses of exposure–response relationships across a range of personal exposures. METHODS: Exposure measurements are being conducted over the 3-y time frame of the field study. We are measuring fine particulate matter [PM < 2:5 lm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2:5)] with the Enhanced Children’s MicroPEM™ (RTI International), carbon monoxide (CO) with the USB-EL-CO (Lascar Electronics), and black carbon with the OT21 transmissometer (Magee Scientific) in pregnant women, adult women, and children <1 year of age, primarily via multiple 24-h personal assessments (three, six, and three measurements, respectively) over the course of the 18month follow-up period using lightweight monitors. For children we are using an indirect measurement approach, combining data from area monitors and locator devices worn by the child. For a subsample (up to 10%) of the study population, we are doubling the frequency of measurements in order to estimate the accuracy of subject-specific typical exposure estimates. In addition, we are conducting ambient air monitoring to help characterize potential contributions of PM2:5 exposure from background concentration. Stove use monitors (Geocene) are being used to assess compliance with the intervention, given that stove stacking (use of traditional stoves in addition to the intervention gas stove) may occur. CONCLUSIONS: The tools and approaches being used for HAPIN to estimate personal exposures build on previous efforts and take advantage of new technologies. In addition to providing key personal exposure data for this study, we hope the application and learnings from our exposure assessment will help inform future efforts to characterize exposure to household air pollution and for other contexts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number047009
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2020


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