Pain, fatigue, and depression, considered aging with disability (AwD) symptoms, are known to be substantially higher among middle-aged adults with long-term disability compared to their age peers. Participation has been recognized as an important component of health. This cohort survey study reports findings on the relationship between AwD symptoms and ability to participate in, and satisfaction with participation in, social roles and activities using PROMIS measures. Data were collected at three time points from individuals aged 45–64 with an average of two decades of disability duration and primarily living in the state of Missouri, USA. This study reports on Time 1 (T1) and Time 3 (T3), pre-and post-COVID-19 pandemic declaration, respectively. Multiple regressions using both individual AwD symptoms and a composite measure demonstrated that having more pain, fatigue, and depression was associated with worse participation outcomes. Lower physical function scores were also related to lower participation scores, as was being female and living with others, and having more income reduced participation. Better physical health and identifying as African American/Black were associated with higher participation scores. Our findings suggest that AwD symptoms, along with other sociodemographic and health factors, play a substantial role in the social participation outcomes for persons aging with disability and remain consistent over time.
- social participation