After 9 Years of 3-Column Osteotomies, Are We Doing Better? Performance Curve Analysis of 573 Surgeries with 2-Year Follow-up

Bassel G. Diebo, Virginie Lafage, Jeffrey J. Varghese, Munish Gupta, Han Jo Kim, Christopher Ames, Khaled Kebaish, Christopher Shaffrey, Richard Hostin, Ibrahim Obeid, Doug Burton, Robert A. Hart, Renaud Lafage, Frank J. Schwab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: In spinal deformity treatment, the increased utilization of 3-column (3CO) osteotomies refects greater comfort and better training among surgeons. This study aims to evaluate the longitudinal performance and adverse events (complications or revisions) for a multicenter group following a decade of 3CO. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if performance of 3CO surgeries improves with years of practice. METHODS: Patientswho underwent 3CO for spinal deformitywith intra/postoperative and revision data collected up to 2 yr were included. Patients were chronologically divided into 4 even groups. Demographics, baseline deformity/correction, and surgical metrics were compared using Student t-test. Postoperative and revision rates were compared using Chi-square analysis. RESULTS: Five hundred seventy-three patients were stratifed into: G1 (n = 143, 2004-2008), G2 (n = 142, 2008-2009), G3 (n = 144, 2009-2010), G4 (n = 144 2010-2013). The most recent patients were more disabled by Oswestry disability index (G4 = 49.2 vs G1 = 38.3, P =.001), and received a larger osteotomy resection (G4 = 26 vs G1 = 20, P =.011) than the earliest group. There was a decrease in revision rate (45%, 35%, 33%, 30%, P =.039), notably in revisions for pseudarthrosis (16.7% G1 vs 6.9% G4, P =.007). Major complication rates also decreased (57%, 50%, 46%, 39%, P =.023) as did excessive blood loss (>4 L, 27.2 vs 16.7%, P =.023) and bladder/bowel defcit (4.2% vs 0.7% P =.002). Successful outcomes (no complications or revision) signifcantly increased (P =.001). CONCLUSION: Over 9 yr, 3COs are being performed on an increasingly disabled population while gaining a greater correction at the osteotomy site. Revisions and complication rate decreased while success rate improved during the 2-yr follow-up period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-75
Number of pages7
JournalClinical neurosurgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018


  • Complication rate
  • Revision rate
  • Spinal deformity
  • Spinal osteotomy


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