Aerobic glycolysis and lactate production in the brain plays a key role in memory, yet the role of this metabolism in the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains poorly understood. Here we examined the relationship between cerebral lactate levels and memory performance in an APP/PS1 mouse model of AD, which progressively accumulates amyloid-β. In vivo 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed an age-dependent decline in lactate levels within the frontal cortex of control mice, whereas lactate levels remained unaltered in APP/PS1 mice from 3 to 12 months of age. Analysis of hippocampal interstitial fluid by in vivo microdialysis revealed a significant elevation in lactate levels in APP/PS1 mice relative to control mice at 12 months of age. An age-dependent decline in the levels of key aerobic glycolysis enzymes and a concomitant increase in lactate transporter expression was detected in control mice. Increased expression of lactate-producing enzymes correlated with improved memory in control mice. Interestingly, in APP/PS1 mice the opposite effect was detected. In these mice, increased expression of lactate producing enzymes correlated with poorer memory performance. Immunofluorescent staining revealed localization of the aerobic glycolysisenzymespyruvate dehydrogenase kinaseandlactate dehydrogenaseAwithin corticalandhippocampal neurons in control mice, as well as within astrocytes surrounding amyloid plaques in APP/PS1 mice. These observations collectively indicate that production of lactate, via aerobic glycolysis, is beneficial formemoryfunction during normal aging. However, elevated lactate levels in APP/PS1 mice indicate perturbed lactate processing, a factor that may contribute to cognitive decline in AD.
- Aerobic glycolysis
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Magnetic resonance spectroscopy