Objective The purpose of this study was to define the prevalence and clinical characteristics of preeclampsia and eclampsia at a hospital in rural Haiti.
Methods This is a retrospective review of women presenting to Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Deschapelles, Haiti with singleton pregnancy and diagnosis of preeclampsia or eclampsia from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2012. Hospital charts were reviewed to obtain medical and prenatal history, hospital course, delivery information, and fetal/neonatal outcomes. The outcomes included placental abruption, antepartum eclampsia, postpartum eclampsia, maternal death, birthweight <2500 g and stillbirth. Data are presented as median (quartile 1, quartile 3) or n (%) and risk ratios.
Results During the study period, 1743 women were admitted to the maternity service at HAS and 290 (16.6%) were diagnosed with preeclampsia or eclampsia. Only singleton pregnancies were analyzed (N = 270). Nearly all (95.0%) patients admitted with preeclampsia had severe preeclampsia. There were 83 patients with eclampsia (30.7%) of which 61 (73.4%) had antepartum eclampsia. There were 48 stillbirths (17.8%) and 5 maternal deaths (1.9%). Patients with antepartum eclampsia were younger, more likely to be nulliparous and had less prenatal care compared to women with antepartum preeclampsia. Antepartum eclampsia was associated with placental abruption and maternal death.
Conclusions The rates of preeclampsia and its associated complications, such as eclampsia, placental abruption, maternal death and stillbirth, are high at this facility in Haiti. Such data are essential to developing region-specific systems to prevent preeclampsia-related complications.
- Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes