Background Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as sexual and physical violence, serious illneß, and bereavement have been linked to number of chronic pain conditions in adulthood, and specifically to urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS). Purpose We sought to characterize the prevalence of ACEs in UCPPS using a large well-characterized cohort in comparison with a group of healthy controls. We also sought to determine the aßociation of ACE severity with psychological factors known to impact pain and to determine whether ACEs are aßociated with patterns of improvement or worsening of symptom over a year of naturalistic observation. Methods For longitudinal analyses we used functional clusters identifying broad claßes of (a) improved, (b) worsened, and (c) stable groups for genitourinary pain and urinary symptoms. We employed a mediation/path analysis framework to determine whether ACEs influenced 1 year outcomes directly, or indirectly through worse perceptions of physical well-being. Results ACE severity was elevated in UCPPS (n = 421) participants compared with healthy controls (n = 414; p < .001), and was most strongly aßociated with factors aßociated with complex chronic pain, including more diffuse pain, comorbid functional symptoms/syndromes, and worse perceived physical well-being (all p < .001). Finally, worse physical well-being mediated the relationship between ACE severity and leß likelihood of painful symptom improvement (OR = .871, p = .007)) and a greater likelihood of painful symptom worsening (OR = 1.249, p = .003) at 1 year. Conclusions These results confirm the aßociation between ACEs and UCPPS symptoms, and suggest potential targets for therapeutic interventions in UCPPS. Clinical Trial registration NCT01098279.
- Chronic Prostatitis with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
- Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome
- Psychological Trauma
- Sexual Abuse