Minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion has had a surge in popularity in the last decade. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques reduce muscle dissection and soft-tissue disruption, offering faster recovery, reduced blood loss, and shorter hospital stays compared with open techniques. There is, however, a substantial learning curve associated with MIS techniques. MIS approaches to the lumbar spine involve anterior, posterior, and combined options. This article reviews patient selection, techniques, outcomes, and complications of the common MIS approaches, including the MIS posterior approach (a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) and 3 MIS anterior approaches (a mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion, a lateral lumbar interbody fusion, and an oblique lumbar interbody fusion).