Use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) has largely replaced bone marrow (BM) as a source of stem cells for both autologous and allogeneic cell transplantation. With G-CSF alone, up to 35% of patients are unable to mobilize sufficient numbers of CD34 cells/kg to ensure successful and consistent multi-lineage engraftment and sustained hematopoietic recovery. To this end, research is ongoing to identify new agents or combinations which will lead to the most effective and efficient stem cell mobilization strategies, especially in those patients who are at risk for mobilization failure. We describe both established agents and novel strategies at various stages of development. The latter include but are not limited to drugs that target the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, S1P agonists, VCAM/VLA-4 inhibitors, parathyroid hormone, proteosome inhibitors, Groβ, and agents that stabilize HIF. While none of the novel agents have yet gained an established role in HPC mobilization in clinical practice, many early studies exploring these new pathways show promising results and warrant further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-40
Number of pages10
JournalBlood Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2014


  • G-CSF
  • Parathyroid hormone
  • Plerixafor
  • SDF-1
  • Stem cell mobilization


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