Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the United States. For reasons largely unknown, the incidence of prostate cancer has increased in the last two decades, in spite or perhaps because of a concomitant increase in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. While PSA is acknowledged not to be an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer detection, it is however widely used by physicians due to lack of an alternative. Thus, the identification of a biomarker(s) that can complement or replace PSA represents a major goal for prostate cancer research. Screening complex biological specimens such as blood, urine, and tissue to identify protein biomarkers has become increasingly popular over the last decade thanks to advances in proteomic discovery methods. The completion of human genome sequence together with new development in mass spectrometry instrumentation and bioinformatics has been a major driving force in biomarker discovery research. Here we review the current state of proteomic applications as applied to various sample sources including blood, urine, tissue, and "secretome" for the purpose of prostate cancer biomarker discovery. Additionally, we review recent developments in validation of putative markers, efforts at systems biology approach, and current challenges of proteomics in biomarker discovery.
- Prostate cancer
- Systems biology