Understanding the higher-order structure of membrane proteins (MPs), which are vital for numerous biological processes, is crucial for comprehending their function. Although several biophysical approaches have been used to study the structure of MPs, limitations exist owing to the proteins’ dynamic nature and heterogeneity. Mass spectrometry (MS) is emerging as a powerful tool for investigating membrane protein structure and dynamics. Studying MPs using MS, however, must meet several challenges including the lack of stability and solubility of MPs, the complexity of the protein–membrane system, and the difficulty of digestion and detection. To meet these challenges, recent advances in MS have engendered opportunities in resolving the dynamics and structures of MP. This article reviews achievements over the past few years that enable the study of MPs by MS. We first introduce recent advances in hydrogen deuterium exchange and native mass spectrometry for MPs and then focus on those footprinting methods that report on protein structure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number457
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


  • fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP)
  • footprinting
  • hydrogen–deuterium exchange
  • mass spectrometry
  • membrane protein


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