Cervical cancer is a global health problem and is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Approximately 85% of the cases occur in women living in developing countries. The majority of invasive cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18. Screening for cervical cancer with Pap cytology has greatly reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer. Screening that incorporates high-risk HPV detection is increasingly utilized. Screening strategies will continue to evolve by incorporating new technologies that can best be utilized in each country. Vaccines that protect against HPV types 16 and 18 are available. The maximum protective effects of these vaccines are obtained when given before the onset of sexual activity. The vaccines have also been shown to have a protective effect in young adults.