Bladder cancer may present management challenges, as it frequently recurs and can progress when not expeditiously diagnosed and carefully monitored following initial therapy for noninvasive disease. Cystoscopy and cytology have long been the primary tools for the urologist treating bladder cancer. However, as a host of potential biomarkers have been developed, new avenues for noninvasive testing have become available in the detection, surveillance, and prognostic setting. Analysis of urine for mutational signatures at the genetic and epigenetic levels appears promising, but such testing has yet to become widely adopted into clinical practice. Here, we review recent advances in bladder cancer biomarker assays, with particular attention to clinical relevance and potential application.
- Bladder cancer